Tag Archives: bus

Bus–Highway Connections Make Transit More Competitive With Driving

Researchers developed a method for associating travel times and travel costs with transit mobility. In an evaluation of bus–highway system interactions, investigators found that park-and-ride lots and managed lanes put suburban and walk-up urban transit options on equal footing. Bus–highway system interactions improve access to job locations and have improved transit access to job sites by about 20 percent compared to automobile access. When wage-related costs are included, the benefit of automobile use over transit use diminishes significantly.

What Was the Need?

Bus service in the Twin Cities relies on MnDOT-built park-and-ride (PNR) lots and managed lanes—lanes for buses on streets and highways, including high-occupancy lanes—to help transit users travel from the suburbs and urban locations to job, retail, service and entertainment sites. 

One measure of how a transit system of PNR lots and bus service works for users is job accessibility—the number of jobs that can be reached by a mode of transportation within a certain travel time period.

The type of lanes a bus uses impacts travel times via bus, and the differences in these travel times in turn impact the transit user’s ability to reach locations using walk-up transit service. The transit alternative to walk-up service is drive-to-transit service via PNR lots. The Twin Cities transit system intersects with over 100 PNR lots where transit users park their vehicles and take express and limited-stop services to business districts and job locations. 

Understanding the impact of managed lanes and PNR lots on transit effectiveness in terms of job access requires diving into transit and travel data; developing ways to measure accessibility for walk-up, drive-to-transit and automobile-only travel modes; and adjusting methods so the cost of travel and the time of travel can be reasonably compared between modes. 

A MnPASS lane on Interstate 394 at the General Mills Boulevard exit. The express lane is closest to the highway median, indicated by a white diamond-shaped marker on the pavement and separated from three other traffic lanes by a solid white line. A highway sign above the lane indicates the fees for lane use.
MnPASS lanes are managed lanes that offer buses quicker access to downtown.

What Was Our Goal?

MnDOT sought to evaluate how the bus and highway systems interact in terms of job accessibility. The research would consider how managed lanes and PNR lots affect job accessibility for walk-up and drive-to-transit users, compare these findings to automobile-only usage, and profile how well the transit system of the Twin Cities serves users in terms of cost to use and travel time. 

What Did We Do?

In the first stage of work, the research team focused on the managed lane network to determine how it contributes to walk-up transit accessibility. Investigators developed a computer program to modify transit schedule data to reflect how buses operate in different managed lane configurations and calculate walk-up access to jobs systemwide. 

In the second stage, the team developed a method for calculating accessibility via PNR use, and PNR accessibility in terms comparable to access via walk-up transit and automobile use. 

In the third stage, researchers developed a mixed-mode accessibility profile of the system. 

“The researchers did more than just measure mobility; they quantified access to employment in terms of travel time and travel cost, as well. Results put park-and-rides and suburban transit on equal footing with walk-up transit in urban environments.”

—Jim Henricksen, Traffic Forecaster, MnDOT Metro Traffic Forecasting and Analysis 

The research team incorporated a monetary dimension to travel time accessibility measures, associating costs of automobile use, parking fees, transit fare and travel time with travel modes in a value of time unit to compare accessibility between automotive and transit usage. 

What Did We Learn?

Study results showed that PNR lots and managed lanes offer greater access to job sites. The longer the trip to a job site, the more competitive transit becomes with driving for commuting to work. Bus–highway interactions via managed lanes and PNR lots improve transit job accessibility relative to automobile use by 3.8 percent in a 30-minute commute and by 19.1 percent in a 60-minute commute. For the 60-minute scenarios, transit accessibility from the suburbs to the central business district improves by 319,322 jobs for the average worker. 

For managed lanes, the greatest benefit is for suburban regions near express routes. On the I-94 corridor, where the greatest improvement by transit to accessibility is felt, every mile of MnPASS lanes offers an increase of 98 jobs accessible to average riders. 

With express bus service, travel times from PNR lots to destinations decrease by an average of 10.7 minutes for the system. Compared to walk-up transit travel, drive-to-transit from suburban areas offers accessibility values roughly three times greater than travel by walk-up transit, in part because time spent driving in suburbs gets users to more transit facilities than the same time spent walking.  

“We developed tools and methodologies, and applied them metrowide to bring new insights to the role of highway operations and planning on access to jobs through transit.”

—Andrew Owen, Director, Accessibility Observatory, University of Minnesota

Researchers found pockets in the Twin Cities where transit and PNR are more competitive with automotive travel per dollar of travel. These areas highlight urban locations where the transit network is the most robust and suburban areas where automobile travel times are long compared to express transit. When researchers applied wage value to time spent traveling, the benefit of driving rather than using PNR lots and transit dropped 89.6 percent. The relative value of transit may increase further if measures account for productivity on transit. 

What’s Next?

This research helps MnDOT plan future PNR and managed lane facilities to maximize benefit to transit services. Value of time models and comparisons offer a way to measure the relative value of transit to automobile use in accessing jobs. 

Future analysis may include long-term fixed costs associated with vehicle ownership and show further improvement in the comparative value of transit services to automobile use. Methods from this study may also be applied to other mixed-mode transit options, like biking, scooters or ride-sharing to transit access points.

This Technical Summary pertains to Report 2019-17, “Accessibility and Behavior Impacts of Bus-Highway System Interactions,” published April 2019. Visit the MnDOT research project page for more information.

MnDOT Chooses EasyMile for Autonomous Shuttle Bus Project

ST. PAUL, Minn. – The Minnesota Department of Transportation chose EasyMile, a France-based company specializing in driverless technology, to lead its autonomous shuttle bus pilot project. MnDOT announced in June it will begin testing the use of an autonomous shuttle bus in a cold weather climate.

“We’re excited to partner with EasyMile to help MnDOT test autonomous technology,” said Jay Hietpas, MnDOT state traffic engineer and project manager. “Their expertise will help us learn how these vehicles operate in a winter weather environment so we can advance this technology and position MnDOT and Minnesota as a leader.”

EasyMile, which has a location in Colorado, has conducted driverless technology cold weather tests in Finland and Norway. Minnesota will be their first cold weather test site in the U.S. EasyMile will use its EZ10 electric shuttle bus that has already transported 160,000 people more than 60,000 miles in 14 countries. The shuttle was tested in various environments and traffic conditions. During these tests, the shuttle operated crash-free.

The shuttle operates autonomously at low speeds on pre-mapped routes. It can transport between six and 12 people.

Initially, it will be tested at MnROAD, which is MnDOT’s pavement test facility. Testing will include how the shuttle operates in snow and ice conditions, at low temperatures and on roads where salt is used.

Testing is scheduled to start in November and go through February 2018. The shuttle will also be showcased during the week of the 2018 Super Bowl.

Hietpas said 3M will also be a partner in the project so the company can research various connected vehicle concepts including sensor enhancement and advanced roadway safety materials. When optimized, these materials would aid in safe human and machine road navigation.


Read more about the autonomous shuttle bus pilot project:


Related MnDOT research:

What happens when you incentivize transit use during construction projects

In 2010, MnDOT began a three-year long, $67 million repair and upgrade project on I-35 in Duluth. Dubbed the “Mega Project,” it created a serious disruption for Duluth-area commuters. To help mitigate the impact, the Duluth Transit Authority stepped up its bus services, offering free rides in newly established bus-only express lanes as well as access to new park-and-ride lots and various other enticements. Perhaps not surprisingly, many area residents took advantage of their new transit options to avoid construction-related travel delays. But what’s really interesting is what happened after the construction ended.

As described in a recently published MnDOT/University of Minnesota study, commuters who started taking the bus to avoid traffic caused by the construction ended up continuing to ride the bus even after the construction ended. Researchers surveyed riders during and after the 2010 and 2011 construction seasons and found that, even after bus fares went back to normal levels, only 15 percent of the new bus users switched back to driving. Researchers concluded that once riders developed a habit of using transit, the habit tended to stick.

The report author sums up the phenomenon quite nicely in her executive summary:

Human beings are creatures of habit. Most of us travel the same route every day to the same destination. Sometimes, however, something comes along to push us to examine our habits and possibly change them. A major highway construction project can be such an event. (…) This provides a very good opportunity to examine our travel patterns and possibly change our habitual modes.

Of course, this change didn’t just happen on its own. As the technical summary notes, the DTA marketed its services aggressively during this period. (The above photo is just one example.) The study also noted that the elimination of expanded bus services in the winter had a negative impact on ridership.

Read more: